espi_perspectives_34 30 June 2010. Issue 34 of the "ESPI Perspectives" series examines the future of the European Union Draft Code of Conduct for outer space activities, under the light of “lessons learned” from the implementation of the Hague Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile proliferation.


Concerns about the harm caused upon orbiting space objects - whether intentional or accidental - have increased in recent years, as well as the emerging awareness that the security and safety of national satellites - of vital importance for modern societies but at the same time so vulnerable - relies on a collective effort. In December 2008 the EU responded to these concerns by adopting a Draft Code of Conduct (EU Draft CoC) for outer space activities. According to some experts, many look at the Hague Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missiles Proliferation (HCoC) as a successful example of how “soft law” can be implemented and play a concrete role in an international security context. While it is certainly interesting to look at the two Codes in parallel (they are complementary and similar in some aspects but different in others), a closer look at the HCoC would unveil its limits. This important exercise can allow for the drawing of “lessons learned” and avoid the repetition of circumstances that may undermine the credibility, universality and implementation of the EU Draft CoC. The main aspects considered here include the universalisation of the EU Draft CoC and its chances to motivate a larger participation in it, its effective implementation by adhering states and the scope of the Code. Some recommendations to increase the chances of a universal and effective EU Draft CoC are put forward.

autumn conference
Lucia Marta (fifth from the left), the author of “ESPI Perspectives 34”

Lucia Marta is a Research Fellow at the Foundation for Strategic Research (FRS, Paris) since June 2009, after working three years at the Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI, Rome). The main topics of research are the European defense industry and market and the European space, in particular space policy and space for security. She worked on different EC research projects on the development of GMES and Galileo services for security and emergency, on the security technological development in Europe, on transatlantic security strategies. She conducted studies on the EC Defence package, on the mapping of defense and security industries and on the control of foreign investments in strategic industrial sectors for European agencies and institutions. On the space domain, she contributed to studies on “the cost of non-Europe in space based system” (for the European Parliament) and the on the governance and data policy for a European SSA system (for ESA and ESPI).



-ESPI Perspectives 34: “The Hague Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile Proliferation: “Lessons Learned” for the European Union Draft Code of Conduct for Outer Space Activities”

photo credit: ESPI

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