ABM: Anti-ballistic Missile 
ACTS: Advanced Crew Transportation System 
AEB: Brazilian Space Agency (Agencia Espacial Brasileira) 
ALOS: Advanced Land Observing Satellite 
ALT: Radar Altimeter 
AP-MCSTA: Asia-Pacific Multilateral Cooperation in Space Technology and Applications 
APR-SAF: Asia-Pacific Regional Space Agency Forum 
APS: Aerosol Polarimeter Sensor 
APSCO: Asia-Pacific Space Cooperation Organization 
ARTES: Advanced Research in Telecommunications Systems 
ASAT: Anti-SAtellite Test ASI: Italian space agency (Agenzia Spaziale Italiana) 
ASTRO: Autonomous Space Transport Robotic Orbiter 
ATK: Alliant Techsystems 
ATV: Automated Transfer Vehicle 

BERR: Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform of UK 
BMD: Ballistic Missile Defence 
BNSC: British National Space Centre 

CaLV: Cargo Launch Vehicle 
CBM: Confidence-Building Measures 
CD: Conference on Disarmament 
CDI: Center for Defense Information 
CEA: Space Conference of the Americas (Conferencia Espacial de las Américas) 
CEO: Chief Executive Officer 
CEOI: Centre for Earth Observation Instrumentation of UK 
CEOS: Committee on Earth Observation Satellites 
CEV: Crew Exploration Vehicle 
CFSP: Common Foreign and Security Policy 
CHAMP: Challenging Minisatellite Payload 
CLA: Alcantara Launch Centre 
CLV: Crew Launch Vehicle 
CMEs: Coronal Mass Ejections 
CMIS: Conical Scanning Microwave Imager 
CNES: French Space Agency (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) 
CNSA: China National Space Administration 
COPUOS: Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space 
COROT: COnvection, ROtation and Planetary Transits 
COSPAS-SARSAT: International Search and Rescue Satellite 
COSTIND: Commission of Science Technology and Industry for National Defense 
COTS: Commercial Orbital Transportation Services 
CRS: Congressional Research Service 
CSA: Canadian Space Agency CSI: Constellation Services International 
CSRS: Counter Surveillance Reconnaissance System 


DARPA: Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency 
DARS: Digital Audio Radio Satellite 
DBS: Digital Broadcast Services 
DCS: Defensive Counterspace Operations 
DEFRA: Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs of UK 
DG: Director General 
DIUS: Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills of UK 
DLR: German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft-und Raumfahrt) 
DoD: U.S. Department of Defense 
DPJ: Democratic Party of Japan 
DSP: Defense Support Program 


EBN: European Business & Innovation Centre Network 
EC: European Commission 
ECS: European Cooperating State 
EELV: Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle 
EGNOS: European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service 
EHNWI: Extremely High Net Worth Individuals 
EISC: European Interparliamentary Space Conference 
EOMD: Earth Observation Market Development Program 
EPO: European Patent Office 
EPS: Eumetsat Polar System 
ERBS: Earth Radiation Budget Sensor 
ERC: European Research Council 
ERCS: Emergency Response Core Service 
EROS: Earth Remote Observation Satellite 
ESA: European Space Agency 
ESCAP: United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific 
ESDP: European Security and Defence Policy 
ESF: European Science Foundation
ESINET: European Space Incubators Network 
ESMD: Exploration System Mission Directorate 
ESNI: European Satellite Navigation Industries 
ESP: European Space Policy 
ESPI: European Space Policy Institute 
ESTB: EGNOS System Test Bed 
EU: European Union 
EVA: Extravehicular Activity 
EVCA: European Private Equity & Venture Capital Association 

FAA: United States Federal Aviation Administration 
FMCT: Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty 
FOCAC: Forum On China-Africa Cooperation 
FP: Framework Programme
FP7: 7th Framework Programme
FSS: Fixed Satellite Service
FTC: U.S. Federal Trade Commission 
FY-1C: Feng Yun-1C 

GAC: GMES Advisory Council 
GBAORD: Government Budget Appropriations or Outlays allocated to Research and Development 
GCOS: Global Climate Observing System 
GE: General Electric 
GEO: Geostationary Earth Orbit 
GEO: Group on Earth Observations 
GEOSS: Global Earth Observation Systems of Systems 
GJU: Galileo Joint Undertaking 
Glonass: Russian Global Navigation Satellite System 
GMD: Ground-Based Midcourse Defense System 
GMES: Global Monitoring for Environment and Security 
GNP: Gross National Product 
GOC: Galileo Operating Company 
GPS: U.S. Global Positioning System 
GRACE: Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment 
GSA: European GNSS Supervisory Authority 
GSC: Guiana Space Centre 
GSLV: Geosynchronous Satelite Launch Vehicle 
GTO: Geostationary Transfer Orbit 
GUF: General University Funds 

HSPG: High-level Space Policy Group 
HTC: Houston Technology Center


IADC: Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee 
IASF: Israel Air and Space Force
IAU: International Astronomical Union 
ICT: Information and Communication Technology 
IEOS: U.S. Integrated Earth Observation System 
IGC: Intergovernmental Conference 
IGOS: Integrated Global Observing Strategy
IGS: Information Gathering Satellites 
IGY: International Geophysical Year 
IHY: International Heliophysical Year 
IJPS: International Joint Polar System 
IKI: Russian Space Research Institute 
ILS: International Launch Services
INF: Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces
IOV: In-Orbit Validation 
IPCC: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 
IPY: International Polar Year IRNSS: Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System
ISAS: Institute of Space and Astronautical Science 
ISR: Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance 
ISRO: Indian Space Research Organisation 
ISS: International Space Station 
ISS: Information Satellite Systems 
ISTAR : Intelligence, Surveillance, Target Acquisition, Reconnaissance 
IT: Information Technology 
ITAR: International Traffic in Arms Regulations 
ITU: International Telecommunication Union 

JAXA: Japan  Aerospace Exploration Agency
JDA: Japanese Defence Agency 
JPO: Japanese Patent Office 
JWST: James Webb Space Telescope 

KARI: Korea Aerospace Research Institute 


LCROSS: Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite 
LCT: Laser Communication Terminals 
LDC: Least Developed Countries 
LDP: Liberal Democratic Party 
LEO: Low Earth Orbit 
LISA: Laser Interferometer Space Antenna 
LLC: Lunar Lander Challenge 
LMCLS: Lockheed Martin Commercial Launch Services 
LMCS: Land Monitoring Core Service 
LRO: Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter 

MAD: Mutual Assured Destruction 
MDA: U.S. Missile Defense Agency 
METI: Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry 
MEXT: Japanese Ministry for Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology 
MFA: Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs 
MHI: Mitsubishi Heavy Industry 
MoE: Japanese Ministry of Education and Culture 
MoU: Memorandum of Understanding 
MRO: Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter 
MSG: Meteosat Second Generation 
MSS: Mobile Satellite Services 
MUSIS: Multinational Space-based Imaging System for surveillance, reconnaissance and observation 

NABS: Nomenclature for the Analysis and Comparison of Scientific Programmes and Budgets 
NAL: National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan 
NASA: U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration 
NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
NDU: National Defense University 
NEC: Network-Enabled Capabilities 
NEO: Near-Earth Objects 
NERC: Natural Environment Research Council of UK 
NFIRE: Near Field Infrared Experiment 
NGA: U.S. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency 
NGO: Non-Governmental Organisation 
NMD: National Missile Defense 
NOAA: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 
NPOESS: U.S. National Polar-orbiting Operational Environment Satellite System 
NRO: U.S. National Reconnaissance Office 

OCS: Offensive Counterspace operations 
OECD: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development 
OMPS: Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite 
OPECST: Parliamentary Office for Scientific and Technological Assessment of the Assembly and Senate (French acronym) 
OSI: Office of Science and Innovation of UK 
OST: Outer Space Treaty 
OSTP: White House Office of Science and Technology Policy 

PAROS: Prevention of an Arms Race in Outer Space 
PDA: Personal Digital Assistants 
PFI: Private Financing Initiative 
PLA: People's Liberation Army 
PNT: Position, Navigation and Timing 
POES: Polar Operational Environmental Satellite 
PPP: Public-Private-Partnership 
PRC: People’s Republic of China 
PRS: Public Regulated Service 
PSLV: Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle 

QDR: Quadrennial Defense Review 
QMV: Qualified Majority Voting 
QZSS: Quazi Zenith Satellite System 

RAIDRS: Rapid Attack Identification Detection and Reporting System
RAST: Recent Advances in Space Technologies 
R&D: Research and Development 
RLV: Reusable Launch Vehicle 
RMA: Revolution in the Military Affairs RpK: RocketplaneKistler 

SAC: Japanese Space Activities Committee 
SARS: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
SBI: Space-Based Interceptors 
SBIR: Small Business Innovation Research 
SBIRS: Space-Based Infrared System 
SCSD: Special Committee on Space Development of Japan 
SELENE: SELenological and ENgineering Explorer 
SETI: Search for Extraterrestrial Intellegence
SGAC: Space Generation Advisory Council
SIPRI: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute 
SMESE: SMall Explorer for Solar Eruptions 
SOHO: ESA’s Solar and Heliospheric Observatory 
SOFIA U.S.-German Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy 
SPIDER: Space-based Information for Disaster Management and Emergency Response 
SSA: Space Situational Awareness 
SSTL: Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. 
S&T: Science and Technology STA: Science and Technology Agency 
STEREO: Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory 

TCBM: Transparency and Confidence-building Measures 
TEL: Transporter-Erector Launcher 
THAAD: Terminal High-Altitude Area Defense 
TSIS: Total Solar Irradiance Sensor 
TTE Council: EU Transport, Telecommunications and Energy Council 

ULA: United Launch Alliance UK: United Kingdom 
UMP : Union pour un Mouvement Populaire 
UN: United Nations 
UNEP: United Nations Environment Programme 
UNESCO: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 
UNFCCC: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 
UNGA: United Nations General Assembly 
UNISPACE III: Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space 
UNOOSA: United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs 
U.S.: United States 
USAF: U.S. Air Force
USAT: Ultra Small Aperture Terminal
USPTO: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office 
USSSN: U.S. Space Surveillance Network 

VAST Committee: Committee for the Evaluation of Scientific and Technological Options 
VTB: VneshTorgBank 
VSAT: Very Small Aperture Terminals


WMO: World Meteorological Organization 
WSSD: World Summit on Sustainable Development 
WTO: World Trade Organisation 
WWW: World Weather Watch